Previously it was mentioned that the delocalization/localization field is associated to an energy that carries a quantum instruction of how to distort or bend the propagation matrix to shape the universe at a time t. Here, time is considered a dual waveparticle and a resulting quantum of the distortion field, defined as the smallest quantity or packet of energy associated with the recreation of the universe in the matrix. Also it was clarified that an event is a particular shape in which the matrix is bent and that successive events of cause and effect occur at decreasing levels of time-like energy, so that the cause occurs at a higher energy level than the effect. The relation between time and events is that the waveparticle time represents the stage at which every event occurs, implying that time determines the amount of delocalized matrix energy that can be localized to build our solid universe with certain degree of entropy. If placed in a spectrum of quantized duality, time may appear as a parent waveparticle of all waveparticles, made of, for example, 99.99% delocalized energy and 0.01% localized energy, thereby showing a very low percent of duality. Further localization of energy can make heavier waveparticles such as light, quarks, electrons, and the rest of the particle plethora. The function of a time parent waveparticle could be analogous to the role of the biological stem cells. All waveparticles result from different quantum attenuation of duality, which overall effect determines the degrees of matrix distortion. Mass and charge are like quantized energy packets of linear combinations of localized magnetic and electric fields and/or flux. In this way, both mass and charge may be treated as light, in other words, being made of electromagnetic waves consisting of oscillating electric and magnetic fields. Each possibility for the energy is determined by the degree of duality, represented by a wavefunction (Ψdual) that receives contribution from both delocalized and localized energy:
Ψdual = Ψlocalized + Ψdelocalized
In the equation, Ψlocalized corresponds to a vectorial wavefunction receiving contribution mostly from the localized energy responsible for generating the solid-like traits or characteristics of matter such as mass and momentum, whereas Ψdelocalized receives most contribution from the delocalized energy responsible for wave-like traits such as wavelength and frequency. In other words, Ψlocalized is the energy of the vortex, bubble, distortion or eddy that shapes this universe, whereas Ψdelocalized is more matrix-like. To account for the theory of relativity, therefore, Ψlocalized must be defined in terms of the luminal speed of light, whereas, Ψdelocalized must be defined in terms of the superluminal tachyon-like speed. Ψdual at a particular time t may itself be defined by linear combinations of Ψlocalized and Ψdelocalized, where each Ψlocalized and Ψdelocalized is also defined by linear combinations of individual ψsub-levels:
Ψdual = ∑Ψ(ψ)localized + ∑Ψ(ψ)delocalized
To represent the degree of distortion or duality, I have drawn an analogy with the 900 angle that physics professes to be between the electric and magnetic fields of all moving charged particles. A thorough search in the literature to corroborate that all moving charged particles generate a magnetic field exactly at a 900 angle has produced little information, in particular, studies regarding magnetic fields generated by particles with substantially different mass. In this model, I violate this claim to speculate that these two fields are not exactly at a 900 angle for all kind of particles, so that the degree of duality can be represented by changing the angle from perpendicular to obtuse or acute. In this case, a particular Ψdual wavefunction defines certain angle between the Ψlocalized and Ψdelocalized vectors responsible for the waveparticle properties at a time t.
Let us assume that all luminal particles acquire stability whenever linear combinations of Ψdual give rise to a 900 angle between the magnetic (B) and the electric fields (E), as established by physics. Since duality can be scrambled, we can say that certain linear combinations are associated with a ground state, determined by the average behavior of the particular type of particle under normal conditions. The ground state could be obtained from linearly-combined Ψlocalized and Ψdelocalized wavefunctions that lead to a stable conformation of the particle that ensures a 900 angle between E and B. In contrast, other combinations may represent statistical deviations from 900 that lead to an acceptable less stable conformation, while others may lead to totally unstable forms of the particle. The conclusion is that each particle has the opportunity to be built in different ways from a “pool” of possible linear combinations of Ψlocalized and Ψdelocalized wavefunctions allowed for its kind. Utilizing this concept, the mass, charge, and type of any particle can be described through different attenuation of duality. For example, a photon would have: 1) mass defined from the amount of localization of magnetic energy, from the previously proposed violation to Maxwell equation #2. 2) Charge defined from the amount of localization of electric energy, as given by Maxwell’s first equation. 3) Type or flavor defined from differential linear combination of individual Ψlocalized and Ψdelocalized, 4) Ψlocalized based on luminal speed and Ψdelocalized based on superluminal speed. In this case, we can say that the red, green, and blue (RGB) photons, for example, have different wavelength and frequency because they have different duality given by a Ψdual determined by different degrees of Ψlocalized and Ψdelocalized linear combinations. Each photon determining a color of the light may have a unique dual wavefunction Ψdual coming from a pool of linear combinations of localized (ψloc) and delocalized (ψdeloc) wavefunctions characteristic of photons. Since photons have certain amount of localized energy Ψlocalized, therefore, they must have a mass different from zero, although extremely low because Ψdelocalized could be significantly bigger than Ψlocalized because light may be, for example, 99% delocalized, 1% localized. Indeed, the fundamental concept of duality of quantum mechanics is based on the description of the photon as a waveparticle. The mathematical treatment works to predict the behavior of light assuming that the photon has zero mass, although there has been a sense of doubt in the scientific community (Levine, 1991).
Like light, if time is considered a dual waveparticle, therefore, time would also have mass, though significantly smaller than light because the Ψlocalized of time would be significantly smaller than the Ψlocalized of photons. Therefore it could be said that time, as compared to light, is less dual, and behaves more like a wave than like a particle. In general, the different flavors in particles, such as those in quarks, can also be explained through attenuations of duality by saying that each flavor has its own set of linear combinations of Ψlocalized and Ψdelocalized giving rise to a particular mass, charge, spin, momentum, frequency, wavelength, etc. In the same sense, we can also say that heavier particles such as electrons, protons, neutrons and atoms behave more like a particle than a like wave. Heavier particles would be more dual by having a value for the Ψlocalized bigger than photons, electrons, and quarks. These therefore are more able to show a trait consequence of larger energy localization such as the observed macro-solidity of the substances made by clusters of atoms such as molecules, cells, living organisms, and the rest of the objects of the universe.
The difference in the flavors of quarks can be explained by assuming that the wavefunction Ψdual of a particular flavor depends on a particular duality given by linear combinations of localized (ψloc) and delocalized (ψdeloc) energy obtained from a pool of Ψdual’s characteristic of quarks. The Ψquarkflavor function for a particular quark would have its mass given by the amount of localized magnetic energy (violation to Maxwell’s second equation), charge from the amount of localized electric energy (Maxwell’s first equation). Likewise, the electron, proton and neutron have the mass and charge given in a similar fashion, however, antiparticles (Dirac, 1931) may introduce a different effect. Since the Ψ functions for a particle and its anti-particle have same Maxwell-violation mass and same Maxwell charge but different sign, it is postulated that the difference in the sign is due to a change in the orientation between the magnetic and electric fields/flux. For example, one orientation (900) may favor the observed negative charge in the particle, while another, for example -900, may favor the observed positive charge of the antiparticle.
Isotopes may also have a particular linear combination of duality that changes the behavior of observed traits like radioactive decay. For a particular element, the identity of the element is kept by the amount of localized energy assigned to protons and electrons, however, the differential energy localized in neutrons changes the duality of the atom. The change can be represented by a Ψdual function obtained as a consequence of a substantial deviation of the electric and magnetic fields from the stable 900 angle, leading to an unstable but acceptable form of the atom. Since duality is quantized, therefore we may say that: 1) certain linear combinations of localized/delocalized energy define the average dual stability of the most stable form of the isotope. 2) Other certain linear combinations lead to deviations that are still acceptable to build a version of the isotope, however, at the expense of losing the ability of retaining neutrons in the nucleus. In the case of isotopes, each Ψdual representing different acceptable deviations from the perpendicularity may be associated to different rates of radioactive decay. Indeed, this would solve Einstein’s quote “God does not place dice with the universe”.